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MILWAUKEE WI Arduino Meet Up Make Space

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2017 NOVEMBER REVIEW

Arduino Open Source Community member - Tier 1 Full Stack Developer
Arduino PCB With Long IC1 MCU

Arduino 101 : What Is An Arduino?

2017 OCTOBER | by Gene Casanova

Senior Systems Engineer


"Arduino" Is An Open Source Microcontroller Learning And Development System

The Arduino Is An Open Source Microcontroller Development System.  The 'Arduino system', provides various microcontroller IC chips on a printed circuit board (PCB) and a programming software tool named "Arduino IDE" for running on a computer with Mac OS X, Linux, or Windows computing platform.  I highly recommend using Mac OS X, or Ubuntu Desktop ( a version of the Linux platform).

A systembaord named "Arduino UNO" is currently the main micrcontroller systemboard, made for learning, developing concepts, making hobby projects or building prototype models for further development of some goal.

Arduino UNO

Arduino PCB With Long IC1 MCU

The image above, is a technical drawing, representing the top view of an 'Arduino UNO' systemboard.

This systemboard was designed to provide a learing platform, printed circuit board (PCB), with needed connectors, to support and access the features provided by the specific microcontroller IC chip (a computer on-a-chip) on the PCB.

The Arduino systemboards are designed with the purpose of learning, researching, and building prototype controls, all based one of the following microcontroller units (MCU): ATmega8, ATmega1688, ATmega3288, ATtiny85 and others.

A microcontroller, is a computer-system on a chip, a IC (Integrated Circuirt) chip; with a CPU, RAM (randum access memory) program running space, and a type of permenant storage memory, ROM referred to as 'EEPROM' memory.

Microcontroller

In 2017, the main learning systemboard is the 'ARDUINO UNO REV3'; a ATmega328 MCU breakout circuitboard; preloaded with a bootloader to support programs developed using the open-source 'Arduion IDE' software application; to be ran on a personal computer, workstation computer, etc..

ATmega328 MCU

The Arduino UNO R3, is currently the biggest version of the platform; made for learning microntroller programming and uses.

The Arduino UNO is the most robust systemboard, suitable for first time experiences tinkering with an MPU and an Arduino system; kids to adults.... novices to seasoned professionals.

The Arduino UNO is the most popularly used and documented board, of the entire Arduino series.

Arduino Uno

Arduino Uno is a microcontroller systemboard based on the ATmega328P MCU.  It has 14 digital input/output pins (6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal (for accurate timing), a USB connection, a DC power input jack, an ICSP header and a reset button.

The systemboard contains everything needed to support the microcontroller.  Simply connect it to a computer system with an USB cable to the systemboard and you are ready to program!

Tinker with your Arduino without worrying too much about doing something wrong, worst case scenario, you fry the MPU!  In this case, get online and order a new MPU for a few dollars!

"Uno" means '1' in Italian, and was chosen to mark the release of Arduino Software (IDE) 1.0.

The Uno board and version 1.0 of Arduino Software (IDE) were the reference versions of Arduino, now evolved to newer releases.  The Uno board is the first in a series of USB Arduino boards, and the reference model for the Arduino platform; for an extensive list of current, past or outdated boards see the Arduino index of boards.


Pinouts & Stuff Onboard

Arduino PCB With Long IC1 MCU

Arduion Board Drawing

  1. Analog Reference Pin (orange)
  2. Digital Ground (light green)
  3. Digital Pins 2-13 (green)
  4. Digital Pins 0-1/Serial In/Out - TX/RX (dark green) - These pins cannot be used for digital i/o (digitalRead and digitalWrite) if you are also using serial communication (e.g. Serial.begin).
  5. Reset Button - S1 (dark blue)
  6. ICSP (In-circuit Serial Programmer) (blue-green)
  7. Analog In Pins 0-5 (light blue)
  8. Power and Ground Pins (power: orange, grounds: light orange)
  9. External Power Supply In (9-12VDC)
    1. X1 (pink) Toggles External Power and USB Power (place a jumper on two pins of SV1, closest to the desired power input supply: USB port or External power input connector port.)
    2. SV1 (purple) Jumper Pins - Switch
    3. USB (used for uploading C source code ("sketches") to the board, and for serial communication between the board and the computer; can be used to power the board) (yellow)

DIGTIAL PINS

The "DIGTIAL" pins on an Arduino systemboard, can be used for general purpose input and output (GPIO).  Use 'C' command "pinMode()", "digitalRead()", and "digitalWrite()" to access and use each pin.

Each pin of the ATmega328 has an internal pull-up resistor.  This pull-up resistor can be turned-on and off, using the command "digitalWrite()" with a value of "HIGH" or "LOW", when the pin is set to "input"; by using the command "pinMode()".

Maximum current per Digital Pin is 40mA.

Designated Digital Pins

Rx, Tx
Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data.
On the Arduino Diecimila board, these pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the FTDI USB-to-TTL Serial chip.
On the Arduino BT board, they are connected to the corresponding pins of the WT11 Bluetooth module.
On the Arduino Miniand LilyPad Arduino, they are intended for use with an external TTL serial module (a Mini-USB Adapter).
2 & 3 - External Interrupts
These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a 'LOW' value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value.
C command for working with these pins is "attachInterrupt()".
PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11
Provides 8-bit PWM output from the C command "analogWrite()".
BEWARE ----- Arduino systemboard with the MCU ATmega8, only provides PWM output on pins 9, 10, and 11.
BT RESET 7
Arduino BT systemboard: Pin 7 is connected to the reset line of the bluetooth module.
SPI: 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK)
These pins support SPI communication.
BEWARE ----- SPI is not currently included in the Arduino programming language.
13 ( 'L' LED)
When pin 13 is set to "HIGH", the onboard LED is on.  When pin 13 is 'LOW', the LED is off.
NOTICE ------ An external LED with a current limiting resister, can be attached to pin 13; keeping resistor value to limit current below 40mA!.
NOTICE ----- The onboard 'L' marked LED, is attached to pin 13 and provided for quick acess to a LED for program learning.

ANALOG PINS

The analog input pins support 10-bit analog-to-digital conversion (ADC); using the C command "analogRead()".

Most of the analog inputs can be used as digital pins: analog input 0 as digital pin 14, through analog input 5 as digital pin 19.

Analog input pins 6 and 7 on the Mini and BT systemboards, cannot be used as digital pins.

Designated Digital Pins

ICSP (I2C - 4 SDA, 5 SCL)
Support I2C (TWI) Communications; using the Wire library.

POWER PINS

VIN ("9V")
Input Voltage to the Arduino systemboard; as a stand-alone power input; when not being powered through a USB connection to a computer supplying power through the USB cable.
Input power can be supplied to this pin, or through the power jack.
BEWARE ----- Different systemboards offer different input voltage ranges. See the documentation for the specific systemboards.
The Arduino LilyPad systemboard has no VIN pin, and must be powered by a regulated-voltage input source.
5V
This pin is connected to the 5VDC+ regulated power supply used to power the microcontroller and other components on the systemboard. This 5VD+ output source, is provided from the VIN through the on-board voltage regulator, or be supplied by a USB connected source, or another regulated 5VDC supply connected to the systemboard.
3V3
On the Arduino Diecimila Systemboard. A 3.3volt output supply on this pin, created by the on-board FTDI chip.
GND
Pins are connected to the systemboard ground (-).

OTHER PINS

AREF
Analog Reference
Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used with command "analogReference()".
RESET
Arduino Diecimila. Set this pin 'LOW' to reset the microcontroller.
Typically used to add a reset button to shields; disabling the reset on the systemboard.

Arduino Programming Language

Arduino program source code, is divided in three main parts: 'structure', 'values' (variables and constants), and 'functions'.

The Arduino language is a variant of 'C source code', based on the computer programming languages "C" and "C++".

The Arduino language links to the microcontroller AVR 'Libc' library; enabling the use of any of the functions in this library.  See the AVR 'Libc' user manual for details.


Arduino Open Source Community member - Tier 1 Full Stack Developer

Arduino Awesome

Arduino is an awesome opportunity, for anyone to start easy and having fun, learning about microcontroller programming, and gaining enlightenment and sparking imagination/dreaming of things yet to come!

Build cool stuff, have fun experimenting, learning, tinkering, fixing, making new products.....  Iot - Internet of Things, to Cool Toys, Models, Drones, Robots, Automating House Things, Factory Assembly Automation, Model Railroading, Hobbies, Crafts.... Have Fun - Dream.... Imagine.... Build.... Produce..... ENJOY!

HAVE FUN!

Clubs, Groups, Schools, Organizations, Corporations... I Make Myself Available For Professional Speaking And Instructing Engagements.


Arduino Open Source Community member - Tier 1 Full Stack Developer

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CONACT to learn about a new group in METRO Area of WI & IL - Milwaukee, Racine, Kenosha, South Eastern WI And Northern IL, space and/or spaces - Forming Now!

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I am building a network of creative Makers/Doers!... Come Learn More, Join, Engage, Enjoy, Create A Solid Future Of Fun And Reward... Come Help..... Core Team Members Wanted, Or Simply be A Hangout Member Learning, Socializing/Networking... Start-Up Incubator Space, Students Tutoring Space, Retired... Hobbyists, Educators, Scientists, Researchers, Developers...

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Use The Technology Wisely & Keep It Simple

- Cheers!

Gene Casanova


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